Page 6 - CARILEC CE Journal CENOV 2021
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countries that mostly or fully rely on coal-based power   consumption through well-designed energy efficiency
               generation have higher GEFs . For comparison, the   measures,  while  at  the  same  time  offering  new
               USA had an average GEF of 0.45 t CO eq/MWh  in   business-models for utilities. Energy management,
               2020, China 0.56 and India 0.71. Countries like the UK   flexible  generation  and  smart  orchestration  of
               or France on the other hand reached an average GEF   demand  and  supply  can  all  contribute  to  further
               of 0.25 and 0.04 t CO eq/MWh in 2020, mostly due to   increasing  the  decarbonization  and  the  overall
               the diversification of their power generation mix, as   efficiency of our energy systems.
               well as through the high utilization of nuclear energy.          On  the  global  front  in  recent  years,  engineers,
                  Science and technology will have the biggest role to   entrepreneurs,  and  politicians  have  developed
               play in handling climate change, as well as assessing   a  multitude  of  innovative  technologies,  business
               measures  being  put  in  place  to  reduce  carbon   concepts and effective policy measures which allow
               emissions. Solutions and alternatives therefore do   for a high share of intermittent RE without harming
               exist.                                         the security of supply and the affordability of energy.
                  RE technologies such as solar and wind energy are   Additionally,  sector  policies  have  already  outlined
               already cost-competitive and have lower Levelized   the  pathway  for  sustainable  energy  transition  in
               Cost of Energy (LCOE) than many fossil-fuel-based   the  Caribbean.  The  remaining  challenge  on  the
               generation  technologies  in  the  Caribbean.  The   ground now consists of designing tailored solutions
               intermittency  of  RE  generation  however  creates  a   and mechanisms for practical implementation of
               need for additional regulatory and technical measures   theoretical examples and recommended approaches.
               for grid flexibility that may lead to additional (fixed)   This specifically includes the provision or enabling of
               cost  for  grid  operation.  In  our  recently  published   financial instruments to overcome investment barriers
               CARILEC Position Papers on Energy Transition , we   for technologies that will contribute to affordable and
               stated the need for those costs to be reflected in   stable energy costs in the long-term.
               customer tariffs for more transparency and planning         The  aftermath  of  the  COVID-19  pandemic  crisis
               purposes.  However,  not  only  does  RE  expansion   compels us to reassess long-standing assumptions,
               contribute to the need for new investments into the   perceived  barriers,  and  default  decisions  in  a  joint
               grid, but also increasing energy consumption, the   effort to seize this opportunity and to accelerate and
               age of the grids in general and the need to make the   push the progress for energy transition. Engineers,
               grid more resilient towards an increased number of   financial managers and decision-makers of utilities,
               extreme weather events. Hence, in a way or partly, a   suppliers  and  governmental  institutions  are  called
               share of these costs would also occur in a business-  upon to jointly reformulate the future of their energy
               as-usual-scenario without RE expansion.        systems. Technical planning of new and resilient energy
                  To increase energy affordability, customers could   infrastructure, as well as the related procurement will
               effectively save money by reducing their electricity   become increasingly complex, requiring more holistic

                3 Typically, coal-based power generation leads to GEF of 0.9 – 1.2 t CO2eq/MWhel.
                4 Country Specific Electricity Grid Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors, June 2020

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